Why this Article:
The goal of public health is to improve health at a population-level. Yet we still very often assess the impact of population-level interventions at the individual-level. The authors of this paper propose comparing the distribution of the outcome at baseline with the distribution of the outcome at follow-up as a way to assess the population-level impact of public health interventions. Methods for calculating the difference in distributions, with confidence intervals, are provided in the online appendix. In addition, their approach provides an analytic framework for evaluating the impact of interventions on closing health equity gaps at the population level.